Simultaneous measurements of nitrogenous (ammonia and urea) excretion and respiratory gas (O2 and CO2) exchange provide a non-destructive stoichiometric bioenergetic approach to elucidate metabolic energy substrate use which has rarely been used with aquatic ectotherms due to previous difficulties in measuring total CO2 excretion. This study examined metabolic energy substrate use and specific dynamic action (SDA) in cultured spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, of different nutritional status. SDA magnitude calculated by stoichiometry was compared to a traditional composite oxycalorific coefficient approach. Protein synthesis can account for a large part of SDA in aquatic ectotherms. This study used a protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide to investigate the contribution of cycloheximide-sensitive protein synthesis to SDA and the effect of cycloheximide on nitrogenous and CO2 excretion. Lobsters were subjected to five treatments: 2-day fasted juveniles sham injected with saline (FS treatment); 2-day fasted juveniles injected with cycloheximide (FC treatment); 10-day starved juveniles injected with cycloheximide (SC treatment); post-prandial juveniles fed squid Nototodarus sloanii (FED treatment) and; post-prandial juveniles injected with cycloheximide (FEDC treatment). Protein was the primary energy substrate (65% of oxygen consumption) for 2-day fasted juveniles, with lipid accounting for the remainder (35%). After 10-day starvation lipid became the main substrate, indicating lipid oxidation increased with extended fasting. Following feeding, protein contribution remained above 50%, while lipid (0–43%) and carbohydrate (0–37%) provided significant energy at different time periods, indicating besides protein appropriate proportions of non-protein ingredients are also essential to lobsters. SDA magnitude in FED and FEDC treatments estimated by the traditional approach was 10.5 and 0.4 J g−1, respectively, indicating S. verreauxi expended 96% of post-prandial energy on protein synthesis and that decapod protein synthesis can account for one of the highest proportions of SDA in aquatic ectotherms. SDA magnitude in the FED treatment evaluated by stoichiometry (12.6 J g−1) was comparable to the traditional approach. Interestingly, stoichiometry was not applicable in the FEDC treatment as the respiratory quotient exceeded the theoretical maximum under aerobic conditions. Cycloheximide did not affect CO2 excretion among all treatments or nitrogenous excretion among unfed treatments, while the post-treatment total nitrogenous excretion reduced in fed lobsters. The combined measurement of substrate use and SDA potentially helps optimize the feed to achieve sustainable aquaculture. However, more research is required to decipher limitations and the applicability of stoichiometry for crustaceans. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
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Wang, S., Carter, C.G., Fitzgibbon, Q.P. & Smith, G.G. 2021, "The use of stoichiometric bioenergetics to elucidate metabolic energy substrate use and specific dynamic action in cultured juvenile spiny lobsters (Sagmariasus verreauxi) of different nutritional status", Aquaculture, vol. 532.
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